November 24, 2019
Lecturer: Morag Rose
Morag: 2nd year in Liverpool Uni
First degree: writing, broadcasting Uni of Leeds then worked in community development where research was vital to show what was working
MRes Social and Cultural Geography. Manchester Metropolitan University
PhD Urban Studies and Planning. Sheffield
Commnity Development Worker, Activist, Artist, Academic
Social science and different kinds of research
Ontology -> Understanding of existence -> What is the nature of reality?
Epistemology -> Understanding of knowledge -> What can we know about the world?
Methodology -> System of methods -> How can we investigate the world?
“The whole point of philosophy – and here I reveal my own assumptions – is that there is no one right answer…”
eg. The City
Objectivism: A Physical Entity: size, population, transport structure
Realism: A Socio-economic complex: patterns of employment, housing, culture
Constructivism: a set of meanings for inhabitants: a place to work, live, travel
eg. Air Pollution
Positivism: measuring sources, types, quantities etc
Realism: exposing the economic forces which lead to air pollution
Interpretivism: exploring the community perceptions of air quality
~ Garrett, Bradley (2012). Place Hacking. PhD Thesis
- Experimental /quasi-experimental
- Longitudinal (time)
- Case study
Case Studies: 5 misunderstandings
- General, theoretical (context-independent) knowledge is more valuable than concrete, practical (context-dependent) knowledge.
- One cannot generalize on the basis of an individual case; therefore the case study cannot contribute to scientific development.
- The case study is most useful for generating hypotheses; that is, in the first stage of a total research process, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypothesis testing and theory building.
- The case study contains a bias toward verification, that is, a tendency to confirm the researcher’s preconceived notions
- It is often difficult to summarize and develop general propositions and theories on the basis of speicif case studies. Flyvberg 2006.
- Maximum variation
- Extreme case
- Typical case
- Confirming and disconfirming
Barriers to integration:
- Different audiences
- Methodological preferences
- Structure of research projects
- Role of timelines
- Skill specialisms
- Nature of the data
- Bridging ontological divides
- Publication issues
- Problem of exemplars